Department of Invertebrates, Natural History Museum Geneva, PO Box 6434, 1211, Geneva 6, Switzerland.
A new species of hymenolepidid cestodes from Sephanoides sephaniodes (Trochilidae) found in Chile is described. The most characteristic features of Colibrilepis pusilla gen. nov., sp. nov. are the lack of rostellum, a cirrus sac with a thick-walled distal end (separated by a constriction) and protruding into genital atrium, a thick-walled saccular uterus filling entire median field of the gravid proglottis and the small number of eggs containing thick walled embryophores with polar swellings. Staphylepis is the most similar genus but differs in its apical structure because of the presence of a rudimentary rostellum. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analyses show that Staphylepis and Colibrilepis are not sister taxa.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, 75 N. Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3043, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cucolepis gen. n. is erected as monotypic for Cucolepis cincta sp. n., a new species of cyclophyllidean cestode of the family Paruterinidae. The new species is described from the squirrel cuckoo, Piaya cayana Lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes), taken from two localities in Paraguay in 1984 and 1985. This new genus is most similar to the genus Triaenorhina Spasskii et Shumilo, 1965 in terms of the hook morphology and large epiphyseal structures extending from both the handle and guard, but differs in several aspects of the strobilar morphology, such as the shape of the cirrus sac, genital atrium, uterus and paruterine organ. The strobilar morphology of the new genus strongly resembles that of the genus Francobona Georgiev et Kornyushin, 1994, especially the shape of the cirrus sac and genital atrium, yet Francobona spp. lack, the developed epiphyseal structures observed in species of Cucolepis and Triaenorhina. Previous records and the nature of parasite-host associations between cuculiform birds and their cestode parasites are discussed.
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic & Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
Tapeworms of Gangesia Woodland, 1924 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) parasitic in freshwater fishes in the Indomalayan Region were critically reviewed. Evaluation of type specimens and newly collected materials from Bangladesh, Cambodia and India, as well as critical examination of extensive literature have shown that only the following four species, instead of 48 nominal species of Gangesia and Silurotaenia Nybelin, 1942 reported from this region (36 new synonymies proposed), are valid: Gangesia bengalensis (Southwell, 1913), type-species of the genus and most common parasite of Wallago attu (Siluridae), G. macrones Woodland, 1924 typical of Sperata seenghala (Bagridae), both species characterized by the possession of two circles of hooks on the rostellum-like organ and several rows of hooklets on the anterior margins of suckers; G. agraensis Verma, 1928 from W. attu (typical host), which has the scolex with only one circle of hooks and 1-3 incomplete rows of tiny hooklets on the suckers; and G. vachai (Gupta and Parmar, 1988) n. comb. from several catfishes, which possesses 4-6 circles of hooks and 5-11 rows of hooklets on the anterior half of suckers. Scolex morphology, including surface ultrastructure (microtriches), of all but one species (G. vachai) is described for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. A phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences encoding the large nuclear ribosomal subunit RNA gene has shown that three Indomalayan species, namely G. bengalensis, G. macrones and G. vachai, form a monophyletic group within Gangesia, whereas G. agraensis tends to form a clade with the Palaearctic species of the genus. A table with differential characters of all species from the Indomalayan Region is also provided together with a key to identification of genera of the subfamily Gangesiinae. The present study demonstrates that species of Silurotaenia do not occur in the Indomalayan region.
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Acuaria paraguayensis n. sp. is described on the basis of specimens from Sirystes sibilator (Vieillot) (Aves: Passeriformes, Tyrannidae) in Paraguay. In addition, A. mamillaris (Molin, 1860) from Cyanocorax cayanus (L.) (Corvidae) in Brazil is redescribed on the basis of its type-series from the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. A review of the species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 in the New World is presented. Currently, 16 species belong to this genus, which are mostly parasitic in passeriform birds (one record in piciform birds). An identification key to the species of Acuaria occurring in the New World is presented. Acuaria multispinosa (Vigueras, 1938) originally described from Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett) (Ardeidae) in Cuba, also known from various herons (Ciconiiformes, Ardeidae) in southern states of the USA, does not correspond to the generic diagnosis of Acuaria and is considered a species incertae sedis. Acuaria gracilis var. sturni Boyd, 1951 is elevated to full species rank as Acuaria sturni Boyd, 1951.
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria, email@example.com.
Ultrastructural characters of the spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Notopentorchis sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Paruterinidae), a parasite from Apus affinis (Aves, Apodiformes, Apodidae) from Gabon, are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical analysis for detection of glycogen was applied. Vestigial striated roots associated with the two centrioles are present in the zone of differentiation. The spermiogenesis is characterized by an external growth of free flagellum followed by a proximodistal fusion of the latter with cytoplasmic protrusion, thus, corresponding to the cestode spermiogenesis of the type III pattern described by Ba and Marchand (Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 166:87-95, 1995). In the final stage of spermiogenesis, a single crested body appears at the base of the forming spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of Notopentorchis sp. is filiform and tapering at both extremities. It consists of five regions differing in their ultrastructural characteristics. The anterior extremity of the mature spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of an apical cone and a single crested body. The cytoplasm contains one axoneme of 9 + "1" type of the trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, a periaxonemal sheath, a layer of twisted cortical microtubules, transverse intracytoplasmic walls, and granules of glycogen. The nucleus is coiled in spiral around the axoneme. The posterior extremity of the spermatozoon is characterized by the presence of electron-dense material. This structural organization corresponds to the morphology of cestode spermatozoon of type VII as defined by Levron et al. (Biol Rev 85: 523-543, 2010). The comparison of the results with those of the two previous studies on paruterinids suggests that several characters of the spermiogenesis and the mature spermatozoon are invariable, i.e. the type III spermiogenesis and the presence of vestigial striated roots, a single crested body, a periaxonemal sheath, and intracytoplasmic walls. The main differences of the sperm cells among members of this family are the lack of dense granules (as in Triaenorhina rectangula) and the presence of electron-dense material in the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon (as in Notopentorchis sp.).
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. firstname.lastname@example.org
The proteocephalidean tapeworm, Corallobothrium solidum, type species of the genus, is redescribed on the basis of the examination of its type specimens and extensive material recently collected from Malapterurus electricus (type host). Some morphological characteristics of taxonomic importance are reported for the first time, such as the presence of semispherical (U-shaped) sphincters on the external (outer) margin of the suckers, a vaginal sphincter, a well-developed seminal receptacle, and a unique morphology of the eggs. Corallobothrium solidum differs from the 2 remaining species of the genus, both parasitic in channel catfishes (Ictaluridae), in its scolex shape, morphology of its suckers, presence of longitudinal and transverse grooves on the body surface, dense network of excretory canals in the apical part of the scolex, morphology of the eggs, and uterine development. The non-monophyletic nature of Corallobothrium is further supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene) because C. solidum and the 2 remaining species from ictalurids do not form a monophyletic assemblage. Therefore, Essexiella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate Essexiella fimbriatum new comb. (type and only species; syn. Corallobothrium fimbriatum) from channel catfish. Essexiella n. gen. differs from Corallobothrium, Megathylacoides, and Megathylacus by the absence of a sphincter in the suckers, from Corallotaenia by the shape of the scolex and the number and shape of proglottids, and from Paraproteocephalus by the structure of the uterus. The diagnosis of Corallobothrium, which becomes monotypic and restricted to electric catfishes in Africa, is emended. The remaining species of Corallobothrium, Corallobothrium parafimbriatum, is tentatively transferred to Corallotaenia as Corallotaenia parafimbriata n. comb., based on molecular data, small size of the strobila, and shape of the scolex.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND: Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. These birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. They live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. There is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, so this study was conducted to clarify this. METHODS: As there are three species of corvid birds in Mazandaran Province, 106 birds including 79 magpies, 11 rooks, and 16 carrion crows were examined between winter 2007 and spring 2008 at post mortem for gastrointestinal helminths. The helminths were drawn and identified morphologically in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran and also partly in the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, based on the reference books and identification keys like Soulsby, Khalil et al. and Anderson et al. RESULTS: Four species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes, 1 species of trematodes and 1 species of acanthocephalans were identified in these three corvid species. CONCLUSION: Five species of the helminths are identified for the first time in Iran, and the acanthocephalan species is new host record for rooks. It is clear that these corvid birds have diverse range of helminths and can act as carriers for infecting the domestic fowls.
Department of Invertebrates, Natural History Museum Geneva, Geneva 6, Switzerland. email@example.com
Testudotaenia testudo (Magath, 1924) is redescribed from the intestine of the softshell turtle Apalone spinifera (Le Sueur) (Trionychidae) and the bowfin Amia calva Linnaeus (Amiidae) from Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, United States. A new subfamily, the Testudotaeniinae, is erected. The new taxon differs from all proteocephalidean subfamilies in the position of the genital organs in relation to the longitudinal internal musculature, i.e. the testes are cortical, rarely medullary; the ovary is partly medullary, with cortical lobes; the vitelline follicles are mainly medullary, with some follicles in the cortex; and the uterus is cortical. A key to the subfamilies of the order Proteocephalidea Mola, 1928 is provided. The most characteristic features of T. testudo are the precocious uterine aperture, the presence of internal uterine pores (as previously described for Proteocephalus paraguayensis (Rudin, 1917)), the eggs laid unripe, the very long strobila (up to 970 mm), and the presence of an anterior circular musculature in the suckers, which is considered as a good differential character. Three other species were found in Amia calva: Proteocephalus perplexus La Rue, 1911, P. ambloplitis (Leidy, 1887) and a new, undescribed form. Sequences of the partial nuclear 28S rRNA gene of specimens of T. testudo from Apalone spinulifera and Amia calva confirm the conspecificity of samples from these two very distinct hosts, which may represent a capture phenomenon. As the subfamily Adenobrechmoinae Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006 and the genus Adenobrechmos Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006 are based on the presence of an apical organ, a character which reflects a rather common convergence, we consider the Adenobrechmoinae to be a junior synonym of the Proteocephalinae La Rue, 1911 and Adenobrechmos a junior synonym of Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911. Adenobrechmos greeri Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006 thus becomes Ophiotaenia greeri (Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006) n. comb.
Departement des Invertebres, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, CH-1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland.
A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African electric catfish parasite. This clade was the sister group of almost all Neotropical taxa from pimelodid and other catfishes.
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Universitetskaja Embankment, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Microsomacanthus diorchis (Fuhrmann, 1913) is redescribed and illustrated on the basis of the type-material and new findings from common eider Somateria mollissima captured in Iceland and specimens from the same host species from the Barents, White and Bering Seas. A lectotype is designated and an amended diagnosis is provided. The main differentiating features of M. diorchis are the size and shape of rostellar hooks and the cirrus, the well-marked delay in the antiporal testis development and the bow-shaped uterus. This parasite is shown to be specific to S. mollissima for both Atlantic and Pacific populations of the host. Hymenolepis (Microsomacanthus) somateriae of Bishop & Threlfall (1974) [nec M. somateriae Ryzhikov, 1965] is recognised as a synonym of M. diorchis (Fuhrmann, 1913). The taxonomic position of the species described as Aploparaksis murmanica Baylis, 1919 from common eider is discussed.
Departement des Invertebres, Museum d'histoire naturelle, P.O. Box 6434, CH-1211 Geneve 6, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Sandonella sandoni (Lynsdale, 1960) is the type and only species of the Sandonellinae, a cestode subfamily of unclear phylogenetic position. It is redescribed here on the basis of a re-examination of its syntypes, voucher specimens from museum collections, and freshly collected material from the intestine of Heterotis niloticus (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) from Benin, Nigeria, Senegal, and the Sudan. The species possesses several unique morphological characters, such as (1) a vitellarium formed by 2 compact, but deeply lobulated, postovarian masses near the posterior margin of proglottids; (2) a scolex with a highly modified apical structure formed by 4 muscular retractile lappets; (3) a well-developed circular musculature, which is external to the inner longitudinal muscles; (4) a dilated, vesicle-like proximal part of the external sperm duct; (5) the unique morphology of the uterus and its development, which represents an intermediate form between the 2 basic types recognized in the Proteocephalidea; (6) the growth of eggs during their development within the uterus; and (7) the complex proglottization with intermingled smaller and larger (wider) proglottids. The morphology of S. sandoni, including the form and distribution of microtriches, was studied by scanning electron microscopy for the first time, and the lectotype and paralectotypes of S. sandoni are designated. Sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of 4 specimens (2 from the Sudan and 2 from Senegal) were identical, which confirms conspecificity of geographically distant samples. Sandonella sandoni sequences have also shown that it actually belongs among the Proteocephalidea, being a sister taxon of a relatively derived clade of Palaearctic proteocephalideans, containing Glanitaenia osculata and Paraproteocephalus parasiluri from catfish and Palaearctic species of the Proteocephalus aggregate.
Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, LT-08412, Vilnius-21, Lithuania. email@example.com
Two species of Monopylidium Fuhrmann, 1899 are redescribed on the basis of specimens from their type-hosts: M. exiguum (Dujardin, 1845) from Troglodytes troglodytes L. (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) on the Curonian Spit, Kaliningradskaya Oblast', Russia, and M. albani (Mettrick, 1958) n. comb. (originally Paricterotaenia albani Mettrick, 1958) from Sturnus vulgaris L. (Passeriformes: Sturnidae) in the Canton of Jura, Switzerland. In contrast to the previously proposed synonymy of these two species (Spasskaya & Spasskii, 1977), they are recognised as distinct and M. albani is revalidated.