Cellular, Metabolic, and Developmental Dimensions of Whole-Body Regeneration in . Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Jul;():. cshperspect.a040725. 10.1101/cshperspect.a040725. 08-07-2021
Here we discuss the developmental and homeostatic conditions necessary for regeneration. is characterized by populations of adult stem cells paused in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, ready to respond to injury signals. The body column can be compared to a blastema-like structure, populated with multifunctional epithelial stem cells that show low sensitivity to proapoptotic signals, and high inducibility of autophagy that promotes resistance to stress and starvation. Intact polyps also exhibit a dynamic patterning along the oral-aboral axis under the control of homeostatic organizers whose activity results from regulatory loops between activators and inhibitors. As in bilaterians, injury triggers the immediate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signals that promote wound healing and contribute to the reactivation of developmental programs via cell death and the de novo formation of new organizing centers from somatic tissues. In aging , regeneration is rapidly lost as homeostatic conditions are no longer pro-regenerative.
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