collaborateurs

Christelle Vangenot

Collaborateur externe chez Anthropologie & Immunogénétique

  • T: +41 22 379 69 61
  • office 4-421 (Sciences II)

Collaborateur externe chez Anthropologie & Pharmacogénomique

  • T: +41 22 379 69 61
  • office 4-421 (Sciences II)
  • Similar patterns of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and humans indicate highly conserved mechanisms of MHC molecular evolution. BMC Evol. Biol. 2020 Sep;20(1):119. 10.1186/s12862-020-01669-6. 10.1186/s12862-020-01669-6.

    résumé

    Many species are threatened with extinction as their population sizes decrease with changing environments or face novel pathogenic threats. A reduction of genetic diversity at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes may have dramatic effects on populations' survival, as these genes play a key role in adaptive immunity. This might be the case for chimpanzees, the MHC genes of which reveal signatures of an ancient selective sweep likely due to a viral epidemic that reduced their population size a few million years ago. To better assess how this past event affected MHC variation in chimpanzees compared to humans, we analysed several indexes of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium across seven MHC genes on four cohorts of chimpanzees and we compared them to those estimated at orthologous HLA genes in a large set of human populations.

    voir plus de détails sur Pubmed

  • Humans and Chimpanzees Display Opposite Patterns of Diversity in arylamine N-acetyltranferase Genes. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics Early online May 13, 2019; https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400223

    résumé

    Among the many genes involved in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs, human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) genes have been extensively studied, due to their medical importance both in pharmacogenetics and disease epidemiology. One member of this small gene family, NAT2, is established as the locus of the classic human acetylation polymorphism in drug metabolism. Current hypotheses hold that selective processes favoring haplotypes conferring lower NAT2 activity have been operating in modern humans' recent history as an adaptation to local chemical and dietary environments. To shed new light on such hypotheses, we investigated the genetic diversity of the three members of the NAT gene family in seven hominid species, including modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Little polymorphism sharing was found among hominids, yet all species displayed high NAT diversity, but distributed in an opposite fashion in chimpanzees and bonobos (Pan genus) compared to modern humans, with higher diversity in Pan species at NAT1 and lower at NAT2, while the reverse is observed in humans. This pattern was also reflected in the results returned by selective neutrality tests, which suggest, in agreement with the predicted functional impact of mutations detected in non-human primates, stronger directional selection, presumably purifying selection, at NAT1 in modern humans, and at NAT2 in chimpanzees. Overall, the results point to the evolution of divergent functions of these highly homologous genes in the different primate species, possibly related to their specific chemical/dietary environment (exposome) and we hypothesize that this is likely linked to the emergence of controlled fire use in the human lineage.

    voir plus de détails sur Pubmed

  • Variation in NAT2 acetylation phenotypes is associated with differences in food-producing subsistence modes and ecoregions in Africa. BMC Evol. Biol. 2015 ;15():263. 10.1186/s12862-015-0543-6. 10.1186/s12862-015-0543-6. PMC4665893.

    résumé

    Dietary changes associated to shifts in subsistence strategies during human evolution may have induced new selective pressures on phenotypes, as currently held for lactase persistence. Similar hypotheses exist for arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) mediated acetylation capacity, a well-known pharmacogenetic trait with wide inter-individual variation explained by polymorphisms in the NAT2 gene. The environmental causative factor (if any) driving its evolution is as yet unknown, but significant differences in prevalence of acetylation phenotypes are found between hunter-gatherer and food-producing populations, both in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide, and between agriculturalists and pastoralists in Central Asia. These two subsistence strategies also prevail among sympatric populations of the African Sahel, but knowledge on NAT2 variation among African pastoral nomads was up to now very scarce. Here we addressed the hypothesis of different selective pressures associated to the agriculturalist or pastoralist lifestyles having acted on the evolution of NAT2 by sequencing the gene in 287 individuals from five pastoralist and one agriculturalist Sahelian populations.

    voir plus de détails sur Pubmed

  • Haplotype diversity generated by ancient recombination-like events in the MHC of Indian rhesus macaques. Immunogenetics 2013 Aug;65(8):569-84. 10.1007/s00251-013-0707-8. PMC3710572.

    résumé

    The Mamu-A, Mamu-B, and Mamu-DRB genes of the rhesus macaque show several levels of complexity such as allelic heterogeneity (polymorphism), copy number variation, differential segregation of genes/alleles present on a haplotype (diversity) and transcription level differences. A combination of techniques was implemented to screen a large panel of pedigreed Indian rhesus macaques (1,384 individuals representing the offspring of 137 founding animals) for haplotype diversity in an efficient and inexpensive manner. This approach allowed the definition of 140 haplotypes that display a relatively low degree of region variation as reflected by the presence of only 17 A, 18 B and 22 DRB types, respectively, exhibiting a global linkage disequilibrium comparable to that in humans. This finding contrasts with the situation observed in rhesus macaques from other geographic origins and in cynomolgus monkeys from Indonesia. In these latter populations, nearly every haplotype appears to be characterised by a unique A, B and DRB region. In the Indian population, however, a reshuffling of existing segments generated "new" haplotypes. Since the recombination frequency within the core MHC of the Indian rhesus macaques is relatively low, the various haplotypes were most probably produced by recombination events that accumulated over a long evolutionary time span. This idea is in accord with the notion that Indian rhesus macaques experienced a severe reduction in population during the Pleistocene due to a bottleneck caused by geographic changes. Thus, recombination-like processes appear to be a way to expand a diminished genetic repertoire in an isolated and relatively small founder population.

    voir plus de détails sur Pubmed

Rien à afficher pour l'instant