Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and germ cells in vivo. Cloning by transfer of ntES cell nuclei could result in normal development of fertile adults. These studies demonstrate the full pluripotency of ntES cells.
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