Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of movement disorders and is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. It is increasingly recognized as a complex group of disorders presenting widely heterogeneous symptoms and pathology. With the exception of the rare monogenic forms, the majority of PD cases result from an interaction between multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. The search for these risk factors and the development of preclinical animal models are in progress, aiming to provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of PD. This review summarizes the studies that capitalize on modeling sporadic (i.e., nonfamilial) PD using and discusses their methodologies, new findings, and future perspectives.
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