Non-marine monothalamous foraminifera are common in freshwater and soil habitats. They comprise a poorly-known group lacking sufficient information about diversity, morphology, reproduction, distribution and ecology. Based on an integrative morphological and molecular approach we describe a new family, a new genus and six new species of freshwater monothalamids from different localities in the Netherlands and France. We establish Astroperula as a new genus of organic walled freshwater foraminifera that contains two species, Astroperula dumacki and Astroperula parvipila. Furthermore, two new agglutinated freshwater monothalamids are described and illustrated, Limnogromia leanneae and Lacogromia pawlowskii, one new organic walled, Velamentofex dujardini, and a new naked monothalamid, Haplomyxa retiforma. Additional information is provided about a special form of cell division in Claparedellus lachmannii and L. leanneae, and feeding behavior in cultures of V. dujardini. Morphological observations are added for an unidentified Limnogromia sampled from the Netherlands and two types of Lacogromia sampled from an alpine region in the French Pyrenees and a karst sinkhole in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The present study provides additional insight into the ecology, diversity and occurrence of freshwater monothalamids and emphasizes the fact that a combination of morphological and molecular methods is necessary to clearly distinguish species in this group.
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